Thyroid disorders are conditions affecting the thyroid gland, which is a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. The thyroid has important roles such as regulating numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. Various thyroid diseases have the ability to affect either the structure or function of thyroid.
Disorders of the thyroid gland can result in either production of too much (overactive thyroid disease or hyperthyroidism), too little (underactive thyroid disease or hypothyroidism) thyroid hormone, thyroid nodules, and/or goiter.
For diagnosing thyroid diseases, thyroid specialist usually need patient’s medical history and do a physical exam, and various thyroid tests to determine the disease. They sometimes also use a biopsy. Treatment for thyroid depends on the problem but includes medicines, radioiodine therapy, or thyroid surgery.